The schoolboy died in hospital just an hour after the incident happened in Topshop on the first floor of the Oracle Centre.
Unconfirmed reports suggested he had pulled a barrier down inside the store.
Paramedics and police rushed to the Oracle Centre shortly after 4pm and found the boy lying on the floor.
He had a major head trauma and was unconscious. Medics treated him as he lay on the floor before he was rushed to the nearby Royal Berkshire Hospital in Reading, where tragically he was later confirmed dead.
In a short statement a spokesman for Thames Valley Police said: "We were called by the South Central Ambulance Service at around 4.15pm this afternoon to a retail store at the Oracle shopping centre, Reading.
"On attendance they found that a 10-year-old boy had suffered serious head injuries after an incident involving store furniture.
"The boy was taken to the Royal Berkshire Hospital where sadly he was pronounced dead. His next of kin have been informed.
"At this time the death is being treated as unexplained but non-suspicious and police are making further inquiries."
The death is likely to be referred to the Health and Safety Executive for a full investigation and a report was expected to be prepared for the Berkshire Coroner Peter Bedford.
The tragedy mirrors the death of a four-year-old boy in 2013 who died after suffering major injuries when a huge mirror fell on top of him as he shopped with his father in Hugo Boss in the upmarket Bicester shopping outlet.
Police said that the boy was unlikely to be named until an inquest had been opened in Reading. It was not yet known whether the schoolboy lived locally or had come with his family to Reading to shop at the famous Oracle Centre.