Police responded to a 911 call about a person floating in the Hudson around 1:45 p.m. They found an unconscious and unresponsive woman, who was later pronounced dead and identified as Abdus-Salaam.
The medical examiner will determine the cause of death, and the case is under investigation.
Abdus-Salaam had been an associate justice on the New York Court of Appeals since 2013.
New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo, who appointed her to the court, hailed her as a "trailblazing jurist whose life in public service was in pursuit of a more fair and more just New York for all."
She had been reported missing by her husband Tuesday.
Abdus-Salaam's death came the same week a prominent Chicago judge was killed outside his home Monday. A suspect in that case has been charged with first-degree murder in the death of Judge Raymond Myles.
Judge Sheila Abdus-Salaam was 65.