The country's most wanted fugitive, he was detained north of Paris, reportedly with his brother and two men.
Faïd, 46, is a fan of gangster films, which he credits with teaching him how to pull off raids.
He was first arrested in 1998 for armed robbery. The 1 July jailbreak was his second and most dramatic escape.
He was sprung from a prison in Reau, south-east of Paris, by three heavily armed men who broke into the visitor's room. They then bundled him into a helicopter flown by a flying instructor who had been taken hostage.
Faïd had been serving a 25-year sentence for masterminding a botched robbery in which a policewoman was killed in 2010.
He was recaptured in the early hours of Wednesday in the town of Creil.
French Justice Minister Nicole Belloubet told Europe 1 radio: "We're going to put him in a high-security facility where he will be watched extremely closely."
The arrest came hours after Interior Minister Gérard Collomb - the country's top law-enforcement official - resigned, in a fresh setback for President Emmanuel Macron.